Fibroids are non-cancerous tumours which if large and placed deep inside the uterus (womb) can cause heavy menstrual bleeding, pain, infertility and abortions. There is no permanent cure with medicines and removal of Fibroids is the only option in a young woman like you. This can be done by Keyhole surgery (laparoscopy) in which even large Fibroids can be removed through a 1-2 cm cut on the stomach (abdominal wall). If the fibroid is on the inner side of the womb, it can be shaved off with the help of a hysteroscope and this can be done without any cuts or stitches. The recovery from these surgeries is very good and hospitalization is for 1-2 days only. Some cases may require an open surgery with a 3-4 inch cut on the abdomen.
What is the reason for the heavy bleeding? Does she have large Fibroids or ovarian tumour etc., in which case hysterectomy may be necessary. Hysterectomy can be done either vaginally or by laproscopy ( Key Hole Surgery) or by open abdominal surgery. It is a major surgery and though quite safe, there is a slight risk of bleeding, infection or injury to the internal organs. Recovery takes a few weeks. However for heavy bleeding without any large tumours, there are now simpler, safer and quick methods for permanent treatment such as Uterine Ballon Ablation , Microwave ablation, or use of Hormonal IUCD. All of these can be done within 15 minutes, require no hospitalization and permanently cure the bleeding problem. However the suitability of each patient for a particular procedure has to be determined by the gynaecologist.
There is a chance that you may be having Fibroids in the uterus. These are solid tumours which develop in the uterus (womb) and usually occur in young women. Depending on their size and location they can cause painful and heavy periods. The other common problem is that of endometriosis where blood accumulates in the ovaries or in the pelvis or adenomyosis where blood accumulates in the womb and causes it to swell in size. All these conditions can cause painful and heavy periods. The diagnosis can be easily made by doing a pelvic sonography, and the treatment will depend on the cause. Almost always the treatment is surgical, nowadays laparoscopic (keyhole) surgery is done to treat these problems.